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Eukaryotic Cells

The cell is the basic unit of life, and most students taking anatomy have covered cells before, at least to some extent. The focus here will be mainly on eukaryotic cells, since this is a human anatomy course, although other cells will be shown for comparison. The goal of this unit is to transition students from the large organic molecules to an actual living structure. This unit also covers the molecular structure of the phospholipid bilayer and how it affects what substances can enter the cell freely, and which cannot. Students will also become familiar with the various mechanisms of fluid transport, including diffusion, osmosis, and active transport. Finally, we will look at how eukaryotic cells divide through mitosis.


Eukaryotic Cell Anatomy and Cell Membrane Dynamics Lecture Powerpoint

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Eukaryotic Cell Structure and Function Powerpoint.

Purpose: This powerpoint gives a comprehensive review of the basic anatomy of eukaryotic cells and how they function. Beginning with the first cells and the Miller-Urey experiment, students will learn about the complexities of the eukaryotic cell, from its organelles and their functions to the cell membrane and transportation. The last part of the lecture focuses on DNA, including replication and protein synthesis.

Essential Concepts: Eukaryotic cell anatomy, organelles, nucleus, nuclear membrane, nuclear envelope, nucleolus, chromatin, DNA, chromosomes, cytoplasm, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, chloroplasts, ribosomes, golgi body, golgi apparatus, cell membrane, plasma membrane, cell wall, miller-urey apparatus, nucleoid, ribosomes, cell membrane, surface area, volume, cell size limits, cytoskeleton, centrioles. Plasma membrane, fluid dynamics, cell membrane, osmosis, diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport, hypertonic, hypotonic, isotonic, tonicity, phospholipid bilayer, integral proteins, peripheral proteins, carbohydrate markers, cholesterol, fluid mosaic model, hydrophobic, hydrophilic, phagocytosis, pinocytosis.


Eukaryotic Cell Structure and Function Student Notes Outline

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Eukaryotic Cell Structure and Function Student Notes Outline.

Purpose: Taking efficient notes can be a big challenge for many students, especially when working from a Powerpoint lecture. This outline gives students a means to take notes that guides them toward important concepts and avoids the pitfalls of writing word-for-word or simply not taking notes at all. The outline lays out each of the key concepts, ideas, and blank diagrams that students are expected to learn. They fill in the missing details as the lecture proceeds.

Essential Concepts: Eukaryotic cell anatomy, organelles, nucleus, nuclear membrane, nuclear envelope, nucleolus, chromatin, DNA, chromosomes, cytoplasm, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, chloroplasts, ribosomes, golgi body, golgi apparatus, cell membrane, plasma membrane, cell wall, miller-urey apparatus, nucleoid, ribosomes, cell membrane, surface area, volume, cell size limits, cytoskeleton, centrioles. Plasma membrane, fluid dynamics, cell membrane, osmosis, diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport, hypertonic, hypotonic, isotonic, tonicity, phospholipid bilayer, integral proteins, peripheral proteins, carbohydrate markers, cholesterol, fluid mosaic model, hydrophobic, hydrophilic, phagocytosis, pinocytosis.


Cell Comparison Lab

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Cell Comparison Lab

Purpose: Students will examine different types of prepared and living cells to be able to differentiate between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. To examine bacteria, students will create their own smears of yogurt, as well as examining preserved slides. To examine plant cells, they can examine slides of elodea, onion, and potato. For animal cells, they can simple scrape away a few of their own cheek cells.

Essential Concepts: Animal cells, plant cells, eukaryotic, prokaryotic, organelles, nucleus, cell wall, cell membrane, microscope, magnification, bacteria, bacillus, spirilla, coccus.


PBS Nova Mitosis Animation Worksheet

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Purpose: This assignment has students observe changes that occur in a cell as it passes through each of the stages of mitosis and cytokinesis. Students will access the PBS Nova mitosis and meiosis Flash animation. They will answer questions about each stage, and sketch what the cell looks like during each stage. This specific assigment only focuses on the mitosis part of the animation.

Essential Concepts: Cell division, chromosomes, chromatin, DNA, mitosis, interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, centrioles, spindle fibers.


Mitosis in Onion Root Tip Cells Lab

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Mitosis in Onion Root Tips Lab

Purpose: Onion root tip cells are ideal for studying mitosis. This is the part of the plant that is experiencing the most division, as it grows roots into the soil. As plant cells, they also have cell walls that are thick enough to distinguish easily one cell to another. In this lab, students will count the number of cells in interphase, as well as the different stages of mitosis within a view of the microscope. Based on these counts, they will calculate the expected amount of time a cell spends in each stage. This lab is effective at emphasizing the overwhelming likeliness of cells to be in the interphase stage.

Essential Concepts: Cell division, chromosomes, chromatin, nucleus, DNA, mitosis, interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase.


Autopsy Life and Death: Cancer Worksheet

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Autopsy Life and Death - Cancer Student Worksheet

Purpose: This episode of the Autopsy Life and Death BBC series, by Dr. Gunther Von Hagens of Bodyworlds, explores the causes and health effects of cancer. The cadaver of a deceased breast cancer patient is dissected to show the spread of a malignant tumor and the damage it caused to other organs, including the liver and lungs.

Essential concepts: Cancer, benign tumors, malignant tumors, metastasis, biopsy.


Our Secret Universe: The Hidden Life of the Cell Video Worksheet

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Secret Universe: The Hidden Life of the Cell Video Worksheet

Purpose: The Hidden Life of the Cell is a documentary made by the BBC in 2012. Computer generated animation shows the inner works of a cell under attack by a virus, while doctors and scientists explain what we understand about cell defenses. This is actually an ideal video to show during a unit on cells, because the emphasis is on how the cell's normal structures are engaged by the virus in an attempt to infect it.

Essential Concepts: Cell membrane, cytoplasm, mitochondria, proteosome, antibodies, cytoskeleton, nucleus, nuclear pores.


Eukaryotic Cell Structure and Function Study Guide

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Eukaryotic Cell Structure and Function Study Guide

Purpose: This worksheet is a set of vocabulary words and practice questions meant to encourage students to condense their notes into a more manageable form to study from. The questions and vocabulary are taken directly from the lecture Powerpoint for this unit.

Essential Concepts: Eukaryotic cell anatomy, organelles, nucleus, nuclear membrane, nuclear envelope, nucleolus, chromatin, DNA, chromosomes, cytoplasm, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, chloroplasts, ribosomes, golgi body, golgi apparatus, cell membrane, plasma membrane, cell wall, miller-urey apparatus, nucleoid, ribosomes, cell membrane, cell division, chromosomes, chromatin, nucleus, DNA, mitosis, interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase.

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