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Eukaryotic Cell Anatomy and Membrane Dynamics

The cell is the basic unit of life, and to some extent is part of every biology course. The goal of this unit is to transition students from the large organic molecules to an actual living structure. Students will compare the anatomy of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, learning the function and identity of each organelle. Additionally, they will learn about the different methods of fluid transport across the cell membrane, including osmosis, diffusion, and active transport.


Eukaryotic Cells Lecture Powerpoint

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Purpose: This Powerpoint provides the structure and ordering of the unit. The beginning section attempts to link the initial discovery of cellular life with the organic molecules covered during the last unit. Students will learn about Leeuwenhoek's research, the Miller-Urey apparatus, and how the first prokaryotic life on Earth came into existence. After comparing the anatomy of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, students will be given a tour through each of the organelles, membranes, and other components of the eukaryotic cell.

Essential Concepts: Cells, animal cells, plant cells ,bacteria, prokaryotic, eukaryotic, unicellular, cell anatomy, organelles, nucleus, nuclear membrane, nuclear envelope, nucleolus, chromatin, DNA, chromosomes, cytoplasm, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, chloroplasts, ribosomes, golgi body, golgi apparatus, cell membrane, plasma membrane, cell wall, miller-urey apparatus, nucleoid, ribosomes, pili, flagella, cell membrane, surface area, volume, cell size limits, cytoskeleton, centrioles.


Eukaryotic Cells Lecture Notes Outline

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Purpose: Taking efficient notes can be a big challenge for many students, especially when working from a Powerpoint lecture. This outline gives students a means to take notes that guides them toward important concepts and avoids the pitfalls of writing word-for-word or simply not taking notes at all. The outline is written as a series of questions, fill-in-the-blanks, or diagrams.

Essential Concepts: Cells, animal cells, plant cells ,bacteria, prokaryotic, eukaryotic, unicellular, cell anatomy, organelles, nucleus, nuclear membrane, nuclear envelope, nucleolus, chromatin, DNA, chromosomes, cytoplasm, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, chloroplasts, ribosomes, golgi body, golgi apparatus, cell membrane, plasma membrane, cell wall, miller-urey apparatus, nucleoid, ribosomes, pili, flagella, cell membrane, surface area, volume, cell size limits, cytoskeleton, centrioles.


NOVA Origins: How Life Began

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Purpose: This is the second episode in the four-part PBS NOVA Origins series. This episode focuses on current research trying to solve the puzzle of how life emerged from a collection of organic molecules. A special focus is placed on extremophiles; bacteria that are able to survive in harsh conditions. These include underwater volcanic vents and an underground cave filled with hydrogen sulfide gas.

Essential Concepts: Organic molecules, spontaneous generation, bacteria, extremophiles, carbon, Miller-Urey apparatus, fossils, cyanobacteria, photosynthesis, oxygen.


How to Use a Compound Microscope Lab

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Purpose: Being able to use a compound light microscope is an essential skill for any biology class, especially during the early units on cells and organelles. In this lab, students will examine some pre-prepared slides of letters, colored threads, and other materials to become comfortable with using the microscope.

Essential Concepts: Compound light microscope, stage, objective, eyepiece, coarse adjustment, fine adjustment, slide, cover slip.


Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cell Comparison Lab

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Purpose: Students will examine different types of prepared and living cells to be able to differentiate between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. To examine bacteria, students will create their own smears of yogurt, as well as examining preserved slides. To examine plant cells, they can examine slides of elodea, onion, and potato. For animal cells, they can simple scrape away a few of their own cheek cells.

Essential Concepts: Animal cells, plant cells, eukaryotic, prokaryotic, organelles, nucleus, cell wall, cell membrane, microscope, magnification, bacteria, bacillus, spirilla, coccus.


Osmosis and Diffusion Worksheet

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Purpose: This is a review worksheet to help reinforce the major concepts of diffusion and osmosis. Students will predict the movement of molecules in a container and the effect of placing a cell in either a hypertonic, hypotonic, or isotonic solutions. They will also identify what type of solution it is based on the relative concentrations of solute in the cell and solution.

Essential Concepts: Plasma membrane, fluid dynamics, cell wall, osmosis, diffusion, hypertonic, hypotonic, isotonic, tonicity.


Investigating Osmosis Effects on Plant Cells Lab

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Purpose: Plant cells are affected by hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic solutions much like animal cells are. However, since plant cells have cell walls, they will not explode like animal cells in hypotonic solutions. This lab has students place carrot sticks in different saltwater solutions. They measure the mass, length, and rigidity of each carrot stick before and after exposure to the solution.

Essential Concepts: Plasma membrane, fluid dynamics, cell wall, osmosis, diffusion, hypertonic, hypotonic, isotonic, tonicity.


Eukaryotic Cells Study Guide

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Purpose: This worksheet is a set of vocabulary words and practice questions meant to encourage students to condense their notes into a more manageable form to study from. The questions and vocabulary are taken directly from the lecture Powerpoint for this unit.

Essential Concepts: Cells, animal cells, plant cells ,bacteria, prokaryotic, eukaryotic, unicellular, cell anatomy, organelles, nucleus, nuclear membrane, nuclear envelope, nucleolus, chromatin, DNA, chromosomes, cytoplasm, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, chloroplasts, ribosomes, golgi body, golgi apparatus, cell membrane, plasma membrane, cell wall, miller-urey apparatus, nucleoid, ribosomes, pili, flagella, cell membrane, surface area, volume, cell size limits, cytoskeleton, centrioles.

 

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